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and he will rule them with an iron scepter

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in the same way that the vessels of the potter are crushed, just as I have received from my Father,


and he will rule them with harsh authority in the same way that a potter takes the liberty to shatter some of the jars he has made if he is displeased with them, and in the same way that I have received authority from my Father,


1: Why “an iron scepter,” not a golden scepter?

Scepters were usually made of gold, to show both splendor and power. But an “iron scepter” symbolized only the exercise of authority; it was pure power; it was harsh rule. It was as if one were saying, “If you think Rome is harsh, don’t mess with the friends of Jesus!”